Friday, December 29, 2006

Solutions for Nutrient Deficiency

The United Nations at New York celebrated 60th year of its installation as a world body. The proceedings on the 14, 15 and 16th of September 2005 selected some specific objectives to be taken up for the third millennium.

Reduction of extreme poverty and hunger, promotion of universal primary education, child care and mothers health, gender issues, social justice, environmental protection, fight against diseases like malaria, HIV, and others which develop as epidemics, supply of safe drinking water among other objectives may be mentioned.

In order to work with a project it is necessary to plan well in advance. A census of the population around which the project is to be developed is a must. Their individual and collective problems will have to be taken into account. Available resources, man- power, adequate technology, funds, time limits with in which the work has to be completed are all factors to be kept in mind. Suitable opportunities, training of the local population, allocation of funds are all part of the project.

Very few nations in the world maintain reliable statistical data on its own population. The tropical region with optimal environmental conditions houses 76% of the world population. The rest 24 % lives in temperate and Arctic regions. As far as the biodiversity is concerned about 80% of the world resources is available in the tropics.

The uncontrolled destruction of the natural habitats with a number of excuses, depletion of the forest wealth, soil erosion, silting of the rivers and lakes, production use and disposal of plastics in the environment, contamination of diverse kind extending over land water and air. Artificial lights and sounds, microwave radiation are all of concern to humanity. Some experts have found the population explosion as a major hurdle in the fight against hunger and poverty.

Modern civilization is a consumer- oriented model developed in industrialized countries to sell more and more with least interest in the item sold or its impact on the consumer. People in the rest of the world are following blindly this model as if a symbol of progress. The food and living habits developed in the temperate regions, when copied blindly do not fit into the tropical conditions. People are trying to enter the industrialized world legally or even illegally believing that such standard of living with food and life style is the best of its kind. That is the image projected by the media controlled by the economic interests. Side by side a modern technology has come up apparently to make things easier for the humanity, provided one pays for that.

About four centuries of scientific progress in Europe served to extend the same world wide either in the name of colonization or scientific exchange programs. The concepts and methodology are made to remain deep- rooted wherever it was taken. Those who do not fit into their measures are not considered as scientists at all. Some people consider this type of imposition on others and their acceptance as such to be a mere mental slavery. A reasonable revision of the entire issue is urgently needed to attain mental independence around the world.

At this juncture I shall focus the attention on the world population. The trend seems to be far from population explosion to an implosion. The empty cradle syndrome discussed at Cairo in the year 1994 is a clear indicator in this direction. The deterioration of human genetic material over the past sixty years is significant. The quality of life, the food habits, the living habits, contamination of soil air and water when compared with the genetic deterioration of humanity several eye openers appear.

Few examples should be sufficient to prove the statement.

The United States of America has a population of about 280 million. Life expectancy is about 75 years. By the year 2005 there are about 165 million above 70 years of age. They may not live another five years. Junk food consumed in the country has been the main factor in the obesity of people, young and old alike. Degenerative diseases like cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis and many such disorders are associated with poor food habits and living habits. It is a type of malnutrition with fried food, refined cereals and sugar, artificial coloring matters and flavors, animal protein like eggs, cheese, meat, fish, chicken and their derivatives of all kinds with saturated fat. Drug abuse, alcohol and tobacco contribute to a society full of anxiety or stress. This is the life style and food habits projected as advanced model by the media. Are we to copy this blindly? Is this the way to improve the standards of living? What are the values for humanity?

China is the most populated country of the world with over 1300 million people. As per information available in 2005 more than 70% of river water is contaminated beyond possible recovery. Industrial drainage continues to produce more and more contaminants. About 450 million male (born during the Mao regime) remain unmarried and have no hopes of getting a couple. About 250 million female also of corresponding age were kept in caves away from sunlight and are crippled unable to bear a child. Primary school children are smokers. The Government Tobacco factories provide employment to many and the production should get good market disregarding the health hazard. Official efforts are to promote production of articles for export to earn foreign exchange. The extensive small- scale industries have failed to compete with the industries. Are we to imitate this life style?

Japan’s industrial progress is remarkable. But the senior citizen population is increasing day by day and fewer children born. Work force is getting reduced due to old age. A Japanese woman may live up to 84.9 years but a male may reach 79.5 years.

Industries may be out sourced to other countries where labor is cheap and abundant or raw material is easy. Elders at home require shelter, food, medicine and other amenities. With the limited space available for human activities all live under stress. Are we to copy this life style?

Australia is a continent by itself with least population pressure. The fertile soil is eroded due to mining. The reduced number of children born every year the government has issued circulars to the effect that Australian couples should beget a third child. The food habits and life style is that of the industrialized world.

People in Africa face ethnic or political problems. Absence of clean drinking water and food has been a major problem. Soy and its products are given to feed the hungry with vegetable protein. Malnutrition and especially under nutrition is the major problem where the children die at an early age. In South Africa three out of four are HIV infected. Dreaded diseases like Ebola appeared in Africa. Most of the African countries have been colonies of many European Countries, the food habits and living habits of Europe are considered as standard. That is the main mental barrier to be crossed. Probably nothing much could be copied.

The Middle East has been exposed to three modern wars in recent times. Gulf war of Kuwait, that of Afghanistan and the recent one at Iraq. Besides the direct damage suffered by the people and the society, the indirect damage in the future has not been evaluated. Every bomb carried a dead weight to attain precision target. The deteriorated Uranium is a radio- active waste remnant after extraction of Uranium for nuclear purposes. About 99.95%of the ore is discarded as deteriorated Uranium. Such toxic radioactive material had no known use until the experts found this heavy material to be used as dead weight for bombs. The radiation is known to cause cancer. The radioactive effect extends over a radius of about 1000 miles and probably will last for ever. The changed living habits and the food habits in the region imitate the industrialized society to raise the standards of living. Is it worthy of imitation?

European Community has serious problems with its population. Old age on one side and few children born leaves a significant reduction in the population. By 2005 Spain had more than 4000 villages shut down with no inhabitants. To maintain a school children were brought in from about 50 villages. University faculties are full of professors but few students. This is the reason advertisements appear in tropical countries to attract intellectuals to their faculties. Some countries like France have intended artificial insemination and test tube embryos. But there are no surrogate mothers available to carry out the 20 to 30 thousand embryos through the required period. Other countries like Germany or Italy offer bonus to women who are prepared to deliver babies. France has announced 15 day paid holiday for a father to take care of the new- born baby. The food and living habits, drug abuse, homosexuality, are all modern trend considered to be life. Do we need a copy of that life or an imitation of the same?

South American countries present high birth rate. Poverty and ill health, gender abuse, drug and alcohol abuse, are all common factors in any corner. About 7% population is rich enough to imitate the European or American life style. The remaining population mostly perched on the outskirts of cities cause social problems of diverse nature. Very few go to the agricultural sector. This may be due to the land -owners who live far away and do not permit cultivation by any body other than their kith, they too do not worry about the same. May be the population has forgotten the agricultural techniques after so many years away from the fields. The fields are abandoned and erosion has taken its share. For example in Brazil out of 165 million people about two thirds live under poverty line. Brazil is number one country in exporting Coffee. This earns the foreign exchange for the country but the workers have no food. Brazil grows sugar cane to produce gasohol but no food is available for such workers. No wonder the easily available rum and beer are the favorite drinks of the population in general, especially the working class. Drug abuse is also common among the poor. The health problem of people especially uneducated women and children in the rural areas is really alarming. The contamination produced by petroleum industries has been indicated as the main cause of birth defects among children in the affected areas. Are we to learn any lesson from these people? Is there any thing that can be imitated? Isolated efforts are there to rectify many of these problems but the industrial modern civilization has maintained the voice through media.

The modern civilization has contributed with wide range of day- to- day articles like mobile phones, microwave cooking ranges, television sets with cathode tubes, computer monitors, hair driers, vacuum cleaners and similar ones. Every one of them causes health hazards but invisible and equally dangerous. The industrial production of highly dangerous agrochemicals and chemicals for domestic use their distribution and marketing continue at full swing to earn more profit to the industries. All the out sourcing income of any country may not be sufficient to treat the sick resulting from the radiation junk out of the obsolete computer hardware.

A significant trend has been officially recorded and that is terrifying. About sixty years ago one milliliter of human semen contained about 250 active sperms. Recently the count came down to 50 million with morphological abnormalities and sluggish sperms. When the count is less than 20 thousand there is every possibility that a man is infertile, condition known as oligospermy. Many cases are known to have no sperms at all, condition known as azoospermy. The prevailing food habits and living habits and the contamination of the soil, air and water may be responsible to produce such genetic changes in such a short time.

Experts on their part have maintained that the present sperm count is 50 million per milliliter. This is the only possible explanation they handle.

Substances known to produce mutations or changes at nuclear divisions or chromosomes are as follows:Caffeine, theine, theobromine, nicotine, cocaine, cannabinin, alcohols, CFCs, DDT, Dioxin, Gossypol, Cyclamides, Dieldrin, Steroids, Afltoxins,lindane, methyl mercury, Lead, Cadmium, and others

Acidification of the body fluids is the direct consequence of consumption of the following items: Eggs, cheese, chicken, meat of any kind, pork and its derivatives, fish and sea food (capable of accepting high amounts of methyl mercury in the food chain).

Refined sugar, cereals and flours, vegetable oils especially when they are hydrogenated, deep fried food, tomatoes, soy bean or its derivatives, chillies of all kinds and derivatives contribute to malnutrition, irritability and prone to many diseases.

All these contribute to genetically alter the human being. Are we prepared to accept this degradation in the near future? Experts on the matter should start thinking fast. Planning for the future should consider the genetic damage already taken place.

Change of life habits and food habits is the only alternative left for the humanity, if it wants to save itself.

Ideal Education

The span of life extends from birth to death. A part of this duration is available for efficient productive work. At least about 24 years are used for education and training to attain professional level in any field of specialization. Normally after 60 or 65 years one gets retired from service either voluntarily or the efficiency tends to decrease owing to deteriorating health conditions. The productive work should benefit individual evolution, social well being and national advancement with dignity full of human values. Each one should establish personal goals to be attained with in a given time limit. Once it is reached fresh goals will have to be established in the same direction if the same ideas are maintained and are expected to continue upward trend. The efficient creativity in physical, mental and spiritual levels indicates personal evolution, development or advancement. The same may be said of a society, an organization or a nation for that matter. Elimination of poverty, material and spiritual, is possible only by this means. So also the physical and mental slaveries could be eliminated.

The abundance of raw materials available across a tropical country like Bharat should be properly made use of by professionally trained personnel. The beneficiaries in the first place should be in the same country. When their requirements are met with satisfaction the living conditions become uniform with least class difference. National well being is based on sustainable society with least unattended demands either in food shelter or social justice. The formation of professionals is an individual approach. The existing system of education based on foreign components, both in the form and its contents, is of no use in a tropical country with a different custom and culture.

Education starts at home. A traditional household is an ideal set up to initiate a child to prepare one self. In fact the education starts with the parents who want to get a child in order to perpetuate the noble heritage that is at our door steps for the past several millennia. The food and living habits of the future parents play significant role in the constitution of a child. The quality of the gametes which go to unite to establish a new organism is of great importance. No toxic residues should be there which damage the components of the gametes. The auspicious moment for conception should permit a healthy, intelligent noble child to start with. During pregnancy the woman should enjoy special attention to guarantee good food, rest, exercise and comprehension so that her physical, mental and spiritual health is maintained at an optimal level. The fetus develops interest for special vibrations in the form of classical music or natural sounds. The sound vibrations play important role in the proper development of a new organism. The daily traditional prayers with Vedic texts, for example, are suitable for the purpose. The universal vision to receive good news, noble thoughts or well being of the entire world is of much importance in the proper development of the fetus. Let peace and happiness rule the world.

Soon after birth a baby becomes partially independent but needs help in many aspects. This is an excellent opportunity to educate the baby. First of all let the baby grow in an environment free of evil thinking, sonic contamination, air pollution, dirty water or garbage strewn land. A natural set up with fresh air, pure water, clean soil, flora and fauna compatible with human beings is an excellent environment for child education.

An education to identify and enjoy the raw materials available in the tropics before its use is a good initial step. Little by little the child is guided to enjoy and utilize the resources with least damage to the environment and to the user. Implementation of this system of education requires an over all change in the concept and contents, call it a revolution in the correct constructive sense.

First and foremost stands the selection and preparation of open minded efficient teachers to lead the program. The age old system of education in Bharat has maintained the need for a permanent self study in order to become a good virtuous teacher. The discipline and flaw less character are indispensable factors to become a teacher candidate. A teacher never gets tired teaching and guiding the ever enthusiastic student population.

A fully qualified teacher should understand the abstract concepts, the objectives of any kind and the words and their significances with all the range of variables. The teacher should lead a simple but exemplary life style along with high thinking standards for others to see and if possible, to follow. For all problems of the society the teacher should indicate suitable solutions with in his capacity or at least should be prepared to discuss the problem with the affected people to arrive at proper conclusions.

Administrative support should be available for the teacher to maintain his body and mind together with proper security. The organizational aspects like infrastructure, finance, physical space, surroundings, logistic in general are all administrative responsibilities. An able administrator should work in complete harmony with the teaching staff. Only gifted few can become such good administrators. Merit and capability alone should decide the selection for such post. When required, special instructions may be given to such selected candidates in the form of training or administrative orientation.

Sustainable agriculture includes cattle farms, horticulture, orchards, medicinal plants and ornamental plants with fodder and any additional fruit trees or timber trees. The forest canopy serves as shade for animals as well. Only selected persons with keen interest in this field should take up this venture. After obtaining sufficient education and training in different aspects of this project they should be permitted to handle these sustainable farms. They should provide harmless vegetables, fruits, cereals and other farm produce for the entire society. These are the basic requirements for every one in the form of food and beverage. Milk and milk products may be consumed for those who require such raw materials. Manure may be prepared with the help of earthworms, cattle dung and green leaves or even the dry leaves. Those engaged in this profession should know how to manage such a program to meet the possible demands with quality products in time. Such arrangement solves problems like the hunger and food shortage or nutrient deficiency. The trained hands should lead the project with learners following their foot steps for the next generation.

At all levels manual labor becomes a key point and all able bodied persons get opportunity to contribute with their might in solving the problems of the entire society. The material needs of the constituent families are looked after by the agricultural production which should be coordinated at several levels to maintain free flow of the process. Extra care should be taken to maintain supply to the weaker sections like elder citizens, pregnant women or physically or mentally disabled people. Preventive measures should be taken to avoid diseases and disasters like famine. Medical help should be available at all times with no additional burden on the sick. The society should make provisions for such situations. The administrative team is there to look after different security measures and implementation just action at the time of any social unrest. The planning body has to evolve strategies and measures before other organisms in the society act.

At the outset any baby is exposed to a family life full of love, harmony and faith in the Almighty. This is to recognize a supreme power that looks after the entire affairs of the mankind amidst a dynamic nature. Such an eternal power eludes verbal description of any kind. It is just the subtle vibration present in every object, animate or not. It represents a silent witness for every action every where by every body. This faith is just in case we have to surrender ourselves to some body some time.

Side by side the child is invited to train its own capacity to improve the sensory perceptions so that all the input is clear, precise with least ambiguity. Simultaneously the observations should be systematically arranged for storage in accordance with individual taste and convenience but with least prejudice. Incidentally simple reasoning and logical arguments are conveniently introduced in to the collected data which helps to process the observed facts in a better manner. Collective games are conveniently organized to imitate social problems and practical solutions are obtained. Of the possible collection of solutions the best or most effective one is selected and the problem gets solved. It is a child’s play to educate to become a responsible citizen in the future. Proper soft technology should be selected to minimize the efforts or to save time, labor and energy. Able and experienced adults from the society, whether teachers or parents, participate in the teaching game suggesting convenient technologies to their knowledge, to make the same more attractive and meaningful. Every household becomes a research center in the true sense to look for collective solutions to social problems. Any conclusion and the efficient solution are recorded and maintained for future reference.

Throughout the education process care must be taken to ensure that a child enjoys full freedom to use all the five sensory perceptions. A coordinated use of motor organs can train the corresponding organs. The mind and body get trained simultaneously to solve social problems. Step by step any sensory perception may be improved and made more complicated so that the assimilation capacity increases. For example, to improve the hearing capacity the simple vibrations and natural sounds may be combined with musical notes, combinations of these notes with intonations and extensions, different melodies, significant terms and meaningful messages may be included in successive classes. When it comes to the vision, simple colors, forms of objects, fruits, flowers, domestic animals or natural flora and fauna, a pond, river under flooded and dry conditions permit association of many factors for analysis. Timely programs should be envisaged in the nature when things or happenings occur without previous notice, all on a surprise the teacher should be alert to make use of the situation. Any analysis and logical reasoning to explain the natural process should be promoted. Similar experiences provide ample opportunities and training to face surprise problems in the society. Once the curiosity is aroused the child is capable of maintaining the trend for a while. Constant supervision and guidance is required to sustain such interest for longer periods. Finally the mature youngster can defend one self.

When the process of observation of the nature and the analysis of the collected data their interpretation to arrive at obvious conclusions is complete further creative thinking sets in. Opportunities should be open to the interested youngster in the society so that the young mind is engaged in constructive activity.

By the time the youth is grown up involved in solving social problems with efficient solutions there is a new leader ready to guide the destiny of the companions. Now the real life commences exposing the real problems them selves. Problems are of two types, those with no solutions at all and those with possible solutions. One has nothing to do with the former category, not even engaging oneself in emotions or sentiments since there is no solution at any cost. Meanwhile no time should be lost in solving the situations. Stitch in time saves nine say the proverb.

While solving a problem several other aspects become automatically incorporated into the education program. For example, trying to answer the questions related to the problems one should ask why, where, when, how, who in a coherent manner to get respective answers. A systematic approach leading to the discovery of a specific pattern is the science. Science is the true knowledge explaining all the factors involved without supposing anything at all. Such precious pieces of information when accumulated become future science, a useful tool for the society as a whole and not just for a few elite scholars to deal with.

Any problems or their solutions have aspects that can be expressed quantitatively or qualitatively. Here enters the mathematics. The four operations of mathematics involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division become useful and practical. This opportunity should be made use of for improving the mathematical skills. Higher mathematics imagining or supposing abstract conditions may be suitable for specialists as hobbies. Games such as chess provides for intellectual evolution. Interested persons may indulge in similar games to maintain intellectual rapidity.

Working in groups or in a society youngsters have ample opportunity to cooperate, sympathize and put into practice good brotherhood. Compassion for the weaker sections of the society with love and affection are attributes to be developed or fostered right from the child hood. The concentric circles including oneself at the center and the family, community, village, state, region, country, the world at large forming successive circles represent a reasonable society. A social science of this type is suitable in the education preparing the base for a noble citizen.

Physical education is part of day to day activities at the school involving jumping singing running walking making acrobatics and what not. One gets sufficiently exhausted at the end of the day. After a soothing fresh water bath one gets a deserving rest at night. Physical education not only makes the lungs stronger but also other organs of the body become equally trained and educated. Violence and erratic competition should be avoided at the physical education. All are winners when they finish the play. Games like athletics, swimming, kabaddi or khokho are ideal for such purposes. Games should be played for its own sake. Sportsmanship is the real spirit with which one participates in an event. Such events may be maintained as part of cultural program in any society. Appropriate use of physical activity for gardening, tree planting or maintenance of social forests is a positive step in the education. Whenever possible, as in the case of coastal areas, tree climbing is a very good useful exercise worth practicing.

Traditional yoga becomes part and parcel of the education process involving all the steps of social and individual disciplines and duties fit for an interested student.

Artistic expressions may be part and parcel of every educational activity. Each person may develop proficiency in the form of theater, dance, drama, painting, sculpturing, imitating birds and animals, or any other good activities. Each one may develop individual taste for specific options and may require orientation on selected fields. Creative minds should be recognized at once and given facilities to continue in the field.

All through the education process one will have ample opportunity to express in clear terms experiences and feelings as and when they come to mind. The thoughts get physical expression through vocal box in a systematic manner. The pronunciation and precision in word selection, orthography or grammatical constructions are fundamental components of language education. Further specialization in poetry, metrics or essay writing, story telling and the like is possible with proper guidance and recognition. An efficient communication is part of a good education.

This type of education has to be set up at diverse environments to suit individual locality and should not be generalized or made alike for all ecological environments. The rigidity of form or contents normally associated with generalized text books may thus get reduced with this type of education in mind. Chronograms to suit the local weather conditions also will have to be incorporated in to the teaching syllabus. They should include activities related to their environment and social, cultural or other factors.

To reduce the burden of weight in the school bag a new system is proposed. In this system numbered cards are elaborated for students, their parents and their teachers. The numbers are identical in all the three cards but the contents are totally different. In one card corresponding to the student instruction is given as to the objective of the day’s activity. The card to the parents carrying identical number informs them about the activity and suggests the requirements for that particular activity. The way the child should be dressed, the foot wear, the head dress, additional towel, pair of glows, a knife, a wooden board, fruits or seeds, or any such requirements are indicated mentioning the quality and quantity. The parents will take active part in the home work and evaluation of the child’s activities. This step maintains close contact with the child’s progress through daily observation. Again this is yet another way of involving the parents, in addition to the teacher in the orientation and evaluation of the taught. The other card carrying the identical number given to the teacher explains the work to be done at the school keeping in mind the level at which the child learns and the ability of the taught to grasp and dominate the contents.

The card for the teacher explains the objective to be attained, the methodology to be followed, the number of students to be involved in each game and other details. This being an individual record depending upon the progress shown by the pupil the teacher should plan quite in advance to organize activities at the school. The teacher is always at liberty to involve the parents to guide the taught so that the home work becomes part of the school work. The individual action, the reaction of the group, the interaction among students, teacher and parents finds its expression at the final results in the form of a trained or educated new citizen of the world.

About 252 activities are included in one year’s program to be completed in 365 days. A student should take up 12 full years of study to complete the course and be prepared to face the world with thousands of problems. The outgoing student should have acquired physical abilities and mental aptitudes to solve any problems of the society. There is no need to go in search of any job. The person is well prepared to make use of any given opportunity to solve social problems.

In a sustainable peace loving society citizens of this kind become key figures in the future. They are leaders, they are protectors and providers. They are social assets. At that stage all are equal and precisely the desired social uplifting in a sustainable society. There will be no poverty, inequality or dominance. There will be no class struggle. There will be no competition. A new civilization is born by the people, for the people and of the people.

Other details as to the implementation of this system, its implications, the financial commitments, training facility for the pioneers are all to be defined at a later date.

Xylem tracheids and trachea - conducting tissue or not?

The raw materials needed for metabolism in a plant should come from its surroundings. The nutritional demands vary from time to time and phase to phase in a plant. Due to practical limitations small plants or cuttings are used for experimentation. Quantitative and qualitative measurements may be made in relation to the growth of the plant body by controlling external conditions like climate, substratum, air, water etc. The metabolic process within the plant body may be measured indirectly by biochemical or biophysical methods (For example, quantifying the oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide released, increase in volume, shape, density, weight, number of cells, their arrangement etc.) The energy consumed or released may be calculated to an approximation using some or all parameters, usually with the help of biostatistical methods.

In spite of the availability of voluminous literature, so far there is no satisfactory explanation regarding the medium or modus operandi of conduction in plants. Few speculative hypotheses have been put forward but no conclusive proof is given (Bollard 1960, Nobel 1974, Peel 1974). But why? Theoretical or conceptual errors might have given rise to faulty techniques, faulty techniques might, in turn, have contributed to the limited points of view; limited information hinders the total vision.

Theoretically the plant body has to be considered as an organism in a continuous vital process. Due to structural and functional differences, unlike animals, in plants there is no question of "maturity" at any level of organization. What is observed is a process of ontogenetic differentiation, specialization and in some cases degeneration. Unlike animals, plants do not take in food nor possess various structural and functional systems. The absence of such "systems" in plants implies a physiological difference. (See next chapter).

In an organism with millions of cells individual cells should not be treated as separate entities. Only for the sake of understanding is this distinction made at this point. When the plant body commences either in the form of a zygote (sporophyte) or a spore (gametophyte) there is an initial stage of naked protoplast which secretes a cell wall of its own all around. At each successive division the protoplast is partially separated by the formation of the cell wall only in one facet. However, plasmodesmata maintain the continuity of the protoplasm. In other words, in any given cell all the facets are not necessarily produced at the same time and the walls do not separate the protoplasts totally. Structurally similar cells may exhibit physiological differences; it is obvious that all vital processes occur only in the protoplast. Plant cells are classified as living or dead on the basis of the presence or absence of protoplasts within them. When the protoplast is absorbed or dissolved, the cell wall remains and is considered to be a dead cell for all practical purposes. Living and dead cells may coexist in a plant, whereas in an animal the dead cells are constantly removed from its body. Also, in animals the tissue demarcation is evident due to structural differences between the constituent cells. The absence of plasmodesmata in animals is accompanied by the absence of cell walls. Therefore, theoretically there is no structural comparison between plant and animal bodies; it should be so functionally as well.

In plants there is a synthetic process in the reception, conversion and accumulation of electromagnetic energy into chemical energy after enjoying the "vital energy" (bioenergy) during the metabolism. Whereas in animals, this accumulated chemical energy is released and partly utilized during vital biochemical reactions.

When the plant body is perceived in this fashion as a continuum, the perspective changes. The ontogeny should be taken into consideration as a whole, both in space and time, and not as a few instances here and there in this process. Partial views do not yield a complete picture. Conduction in plants has been studied but with faulty techniques. The methodology used to obtain evidence in support of the hypotheses proposed so far on the xylem transport warrants some comments. Two methods are described and are generally employed to obtain 'xylem sap' for analysis. In both cases assumptions and presumptions contribute to the factual errors.

1. "Xylem" is taken for granted as a conducting tissue and hence the exudate is taken from it to study conduction.

2. Little or no attention has been given to the structural complexity involving different cell types that make up the "xylem", although elsewhere in plant anatomy elaborate descriptions are made regarding the protoxylem, metaxylem and secondary xylem. They differ in their origin, cytology, cell types and contents.

3. No effort is made to identify the element from which the "xylem sap: is obtained. In the literature when xylem vessel is considered as a conducting element no reference is made as to whether or not the adjacent xylem parenchyma is involved in the process. In what way does it differ if the xylem is devoid of vessels?

4. Structural continuity of the xylem is not considered with reference to the entire plant. In other words, the three dimensional distribution of xylem parenchyma, xylem vessel members, xylem fibers and xylem tracheids in the protoxylem, metaxylem and secondary xylem is generally ignored.

5. In one and the same vessel the constituent cell-initials near the meristems contain protoplasts, whereas farther away mere cell walls remain.

6.What is observed in laboratory plant materials (limited in quantity and quality) is presumed to occur in nature.

One of the techniques called "root bleeding" obtains exudates from the "cut ends nearest to the base of the stem." In anatomical literature this region corresponds to the hypocotylary area in most of the plants studied. In taxa where the cotyledons remain embedded within the seed coat during germination, the first internode corresponds to this region. In monocotyledonous taxa this may be the cotyledonary node. This is the so called "transition region" where there is "splitting, twisting, torsion, fusion, reorientation etc." of the "vascular bundles" or there is anastomosis of "conducting elements." In any case, it is impossible to isolate "xylem." This situation may be further complicated in diotyledonous taxa with the onset of activity in the "vascular cambium" to produce "secondary xylem" not completely distinguishable from the metaxylem. In the case of clonal multiplication, as is frequently done in horticulture, the adventitious roots arise from the callus produced from the dedifferentiated parenchymatous cells of the shoot. At this region, as in any other part of the plant, the "xylem" consists of cells with protoplasts and those devoid of the same, usually intermixed. Therefore, attempts to obtain "root exudates from cut ends nearest to the base of the stem" requires refined techniques which can verify the source of the exudate with precision. In science where accuracy and precision are basic principles such techniques are examples of how they should not be!

The second technique used obtains xylem exudates from the sap wood. "Recently matured xylem elements" sounds attractive but is not precise. First of all, to locate the "mature" elements and to sharply circumscribe the cell(s) involved will be a perpetual problem when the plant body is perceived as a continuum; dynamic vitality is the secret of totipotency. After division, differentiation, specialization and in some cases degeneration a cell derived from the meristematic region becomes "mature." While an adjacent cell is still at the division process closer to the meristematic region, the derived cell farther away might exhibit all or some of the stages of differentiation, specialization or degeneration of the protoplast. Only by the deposition of the secondary wall material with the absorption or degeneration of the protoplasts the tracheary cells attain their "maturity." Again, it is to be noted that in xylem the cells adjacent to a vessel may be parenchyma, tracheid or even another vessel member, not necessarily at the same stage of maturity. Whatever be the case, there is no horizontal perforation plate between the vessel member and the adjacent cell(s). When three dimensional growth process in plants is conceived as such, the longitudinal as well as the horizontal protoplasmic continuity will have to be taken into consideration. The intercalating cell walls (cellulosic ones deposited secondarily after the elongation and adjustment of the cells) may partially interrupt the protoplasmic continuity. If a cell has attained physiological maturity all activities related to the metabolism should be located in that particular cell. This implies that a lot of the biochemical and enzymatic processes can take place only if the protoplast is intact. In other words, symplastic activity carries out these vital processes, whereas the apoplastic parts of the plant cannot participate actively in such processes. Both climatic and edaphic conditions play an important role in the process of plant growth. The phenophase at which each plant is found at the time of obtaining the samples of the "xylem sap" is also of importance. In the tropics, where there is apparently no such seasonal changes as in temperate regions, plants of the same taxon may exhibit different phenophases, sometimes even in one and the same individual. The "xylem sap" constitutes part of living protoplasm since it contains metabolic products like amino-acids, carbohydrates, enzyme systems, growth regulators etc. (Peel, 1974). Water-conducting vessels or tracheids, devoid of protoplast when "mature", at best should contain water and dissolved salts (raw materials) but no finished products. In the literature no mechanism is explained how the sap from the symplast gets converted into water and dissolved salts when it enters the apoplast.

Thus, both techniques used which obtained the exudate or sap either from the cut ends of roots nearest to the base of the stem or from the recently matured xylem elements of the sap wood, present theoretical and practical drawbacks.

The aphid technique to study the phloem exudate depends on the selectivity of these insects. It is assumed that the phloem is the conducting tissue. The protoplasmic ultra structure involving endoplasmic reticulum, organelles, nuclear material and other cytoplasmic inclusions are aspects not taken into consideration to explain the functional details of the tissue.

Evert (1982) says "The tracheary elements of the xylem have rigid walls and lack protoplasts at maturity. These structural characteristics facilitate the rapid movement of water and dissolved solutes under considerable tension induced largely by transpirational loss of water from the surface of the leaves." There is no proof in the literature for this statement. Stem cuttings devoid of leaves do not transpire but there is absorption and conduction within. It is interesting, however, that the same author, with reference to phloem, considers "In order to have a clear understanding of translocation it is essential to correlate the structure with the function of the tissues and cell types concerned." If this is true for phloem, criteria should not vary when xylem is under consideration.

Another aspect of the language used in descriptive anatomy is worth considering here. Although these statements are common to any text book on general botany or plant anatomy for the sake of clarity the following sentences are quoted from Fahn (1982):

Page 188: ".....the primary vascular cylinder is interrupted at each node by the exit of one or more bundles that enter the leaves."

Page 189: " is necessary to study more accurately the nature of the traces and to follow their passage downwards in the stem."

Page 190: ".....Leaf trace bundles was used to designate those that directly connect the leaf and stele. Cauline bundle refers to those bundles that form the major vascular system of the stem and which may anastomose and give rise to leaf traces. The term common bundle has been used for those bundles that run unbranched for a relatively long distance in the stem and which eventually terminate in a leaf trace." ".....the vascular system of the stem can be interpreted as being a system of leaf traces that continue downwards in the stem for one or more internodes where they fuse with the leaf traces of the lower nodes."

Page 193: ".....These penetrate deep into the interior of the stem and then pass to the periphery in lower nodes."

A reader of such statements interprets this as if here is a physical movement or material motion. No effort is being made to explain how, during, ontogeny, differentiation and specialization as a process produce such configuration of cells or groups of cells in the plant body, or how the final external or internal structure appears to be a network formed of cells or groups of cells in a specific manner as a consequence of morphogenetic expression. "Dichotomously branched veins" commonly found in ferns again refers to the final expression and has nothing to do with the dichotomy produced by the splitting of the apical meristem into two equal halves each developing into a branch. Whether it is a conceptual error or the limitation of the language is the question. Such ambiguous interpretations should be avoided in science. Other terms equally ambiguous are: "conducting strand." "vascular tissue," "higher plants or lower plants." These are products of speculation or anthropomorphism (see Font Quer 1973 for other terms). The description of the "transition zone," as exhibiting "splitting, twisting, torsion, fusion, etc. of bundles" is misleading. First of all the roots have no such bundles, because the xylem and phloem elements are not found in the same radius, secondly the individual cells constituting the xylem and phloem units do not suffer such torture during differentiation, specialization or degeneration.

It is again impossible to detect vascular bundles down below the stem, especially in trees or other perennials where the onset of the secondary growth is very close to the apical meristem, sometimes only a few plastochrons below. Such being the case, tracing the individual bundles several nodes below is next to impossible. The nodal plate formation, especially in monocotyledonous taxa, is a typical example to show that the bundles do not "run" beyond one internode. In plants devoid of leaves the internodes present xylem and phloem in distinct patterns as bundles where it is again impossible to talk about leaf traces. The presence of intercalary meristems at the nodal region, as in many monocotylonous taxa, or at the base of the primordial of lateral appendage or at the base of the fruit stalk or even the fruit itself is a significant feature. There are meristematic cells or in other words, cells that have the capacity to undergo division and differentiation interrupt the continuity of xylem and/or phloem strands. The network of xylem and phloem elements within the leaf blade is a product of differentiation and specialization in situ. The final form may look like a profusely branching network. Even then the direction of vascular differentiation is described as basipetal. That is to say that the xylem or phloem elements get "mature" at the leaf tip and then progressively downward. Hence, the last region where xylem elements get differentiated will be the leaf base corresponding to the intercalary meristem. The so-called leaf trace within the leaf differentiates basipetally but within the stem acropetally. In other words, the meristematic region gets differentiated finally. The continuity of the xylem or phloem is interrupted accordingly.

In tropical trees it is common to observe the intact leaves on stems and branches that have undergone secondary thickening. In these cases the vascular cambium has produced a sufficient amount of secondary xylem and secondary phloem between the primary phloem of the stem, thus occupying the region of leaf gap. In other words, once the cambial activity is evident the xylem of the stem does not maintain organic connections with the primary xylem of the leaves. The cambial activity is so extensive that the primary phloem of the stem is either obliterated or even thrown away as "periderm" following the activity of the cork cambium. How then is it possible to maintain the water supply through the xylem? If symplastic and apoplastic paths could be combined, as has been done in the recent literature, special mechanisms will have to be proposed for transfer of water and dissolved salts repeatedly from the symplast to the apoplast and vice versa.

Other structural considerations serve to clarify the process. For example:

1. Xylem parenchyma cells occur in between the protoxylem vessel elements and the metaxylem vessel elements (may be any other tracheary elements). Within the desmogen those elements which differentiate and specialize with secondary wall thickenings are optically distinguishable from the neighbouring elements devoid of such peculiarities.

2. Protoxylem element (irrespective of the type of element) gets obliterated either by stretching of the primary body or by the rupture of the secondary wall material as a consequence of the stretching. The protoplast is already used up during the cell- ontogeny. In monocotyledonous taxa, where these elements were present, empty spaces (lacunae) occur at maturity. These cells or groups of cells along the same location nearer the meristem may have protoplasts and hence physiological activities are possible in this region.

3. Away from the meristem, on the other hand, when there is additional differentiation and specialization, metaxylem elements are formed out of the desmogen. These metaxylem elements are not in longitudinal continuity with the protoxylem elements, nor are they found adjacent to one another. At least the vessel elements are separated by other types of cells in between.

4. When the fascicular cambium is present (the undifferentiated cells of the demsogen in between the differentiated ones), the production of "secondary" elements out of these fusiform initials is in the proximity of the metaxylem. The gradation is smooth that one can hardly distinguish between the late formed metaxylem element and the early formed secondary xylem element. Moreover, the differentiated and specialized cells in either case may be tracheids, fibers, vessel members or parenchyma cells at `maturity.'

5. In monocotyledonous taxa where the primary growth is maintained throughout, a bundle sheath formed of sclerenchymatous cells is common; this is best seen in grasses. In order to explain the conduction through the xylem or, for that matter, phloem elements, it is necessary to show how water and the dissolved solutes traverse through the dead cells (sclerenchymatous ones), longitudinally and transversely. In such case even the sclerenchymatous bundle sheath should have been called "conducting tissue."

6. The absence of a distinct arrangement of bundles or even the separation of xylem and phloem elements at the nodal region is quite interesting compared to the clear-cut bundle appearance at the inter nodal region. The anastomoses of these elements at each node under primary growth at the apical regions of the shoot should be noted.

7. The interpolation of newly differentiated and specialized elements derived from lateral meristem in the axis of the plants (in dicotyledonous and gymnospermous taxa) between the primary xylem and primary phloem, maintains the discontinuity.

8. The early onset of cambial activity produces significant quantities of secondary xylem and phloem elements in between the primary elements of the lateral appendages of limited growth and the primary body of the stem axis. This separation of primary elements, even if the individual cell continuity is overlooked for the time being, is of great importance at the time of consideration of these elements as conducting in function. The elements of the primary phloem may get differentiated to "cortical fibers" when the cortex is intact or it may be sloughed off as periderm after the activity of the phellogen. At the same time the primary phloem elements in the appendage are still alive and are actively participating in the physiological functions of the protoplast.

9. The presence of tracheary elements and phloem elements in the mesophyll of the leaf blade is interpreted as an evidence of conduction. However, it is interesting to note that such arrangements are not seen in cladodes where the cortical cells are replete with chloroplasts. Does it mean that when there are cladodes no conduction is required to supply the soil solution to the place of synthesis?

10. Cut flowers or stem cuttings stay fresh in water in spite of the absence of absorbing root ends.

11. At the embryonic level there is xylem and phloem differentiation but the water and soil solution is not absorbed nor conducted from the surroundings through the `vascular strands.' The energy required is available either from the surrounding endosperm or is stored in the cotyledon(s). The xylem and phloem elements in the embryo do not have organic connection with the xylem and phloem of the plant bearing the seed or fruit.

12. In all aquatic plants (whether attached to the substrate, suspended or free-floating), though to a lesser extent, there is differentiation of xylem and phloem elements.

13. In grafts the success depends on the callus formation and the establishment of organic continuity between the protoplasts rather than the connection between the xylem or phloem elements.

14. Colouring substances like safranin normally used to optically distinguish the tracheary elements of the xylem have special chemical reactions with the wall material deposited. Any experiment wherein the walls get coloured does not "prove" that the conduction is through those cells but only signifies that the colouring matter has reached that region of the organism, and consequently reacts with the wall material making the wall optically distinguishable from the neighbouring cells where such reaction has not taken place. The colour is not manifest in the protoplast even when safranin or other colouring substances pass through the same. This only proves that the chemical reaction has not taken place or the intensity of the colour is too little for observation or that the concentration of the colouring matter is too dilute. With these points under consideration the following conclusions have been drawn:

1. The absorption of water and solutes dissolved in it or in air occurs through the living cells at the surface of the organism.

2. Once within the protoplast, the raw materials serve in the metabolism of the organisms.

3. When the supply of raw materials is abundant the protoplast increases in size, improves in quality - within the limits of specific range and may divide partially to maintain more physiologically active units, the cells. Each derived cell is a continuation of the previous one through plasmodesmata. In other words, the wall formation along only one facet at a time is incomplete because of the presence of pits.

4. Each living cell (meristematic, parenchymatous, epidermal, companion cells, ray cells, phellodermal cells, lenticels etc.) utilize whatever raw material it needs, for the specific physiological activity it has to perform, from the absorbed solution. The raw materials not used and the metabolic products formed within the protoplast pass on to the adjacent cells through plasmodesmata.

The limited number of mutilated and degenerated protoxylem elements are incapable of transporting enormous quantity of water and solvents absorbed by the root hairs.

5. All such movements are possible due to the "vital force" or the "bioenergy" within the protoplast.

6. Tracheids, vessel members or vascular elements and sclerenchymatous cells are formed by the deposition of metabolic products or waste material of the organism.

7. These cell walls, frames devoid of any protoplast, compactly arranged at regular patterns provide the organism with necessary mechanical strength and also serve as reservoirs of waste materials. They do not participate in any live processes including conduction.

Literature cited

1. Bollard, E. G. 1960, Transport in xylem, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 11: 141-166.
2. Esau, K. 1977, Anatomy of Seed Plants, 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
3. Evert, R. F. 1982, Sieve-tube structure in relation to function. Bioscience 32 32 (10); 789-795.
4. Fahn, A. 1982, Plant Anatomy, 3rd Ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford.
5. Font Quer, P. 1979, Diccionario de Botanica. Editorial Labor, Barcelona, Spain.
6. Grew, N. 1682 The Anatomy of Plants, Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York (1965).
7. Metcalfe, C. R. and L. Chalk 1979 Anatomy of Dicotyledons. 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
8. Nobel, P. S. 1974, Introduction to Biophysical Plant Physiology, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
9. Peel, A. J. 1974 Transport of Nutrients in Plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
10. Zimmermann, M. H. and J. A. Milburn (Eds.) 1975 Transport in plants I. Pholem transport. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 1. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Is Arterial Blood Toxic?


The modern science requires thorough revision in order to create credibility and confidence. Of late there is a trend around the world, especially among the youngsters, not to seek admission in basic sciences. Several reasons may be there. As a consequence at undergraduate level or graduate levels lesser number of students gets enrolled year after year. Several scientists have expressed their opinions on the issue inviting the youngsters to take up courses leading to basic sciences. Here is yet another angle to solve the problem.

I have focused the issue academically as an introspection why there is such apathy? An analytical case study is illustrative. This should permit rectification of any errors and an opportunity to change the same for future action. It is hoped that such case studies in every field of science should yield excellent dividends. The rectification of concepts and methodology should be taken up by the elder scientists of today so that the youngsters get encouragement and proper guidance. Academically the world is flat. Every one has his or her duties and responsibilities besides rights. It is possible that some drastic changes are inevitable but there should be understanding on this issue and full collaboration from all directions.

In a dynamic nature every ingredient is part of the whole. No fragmentation is possible. Precisely this is what the modern science has done all through. Take for example the blood in an organism. Blood is a special tissue system in human body. Several metabolic functions are attributed to the blood. Blood analysis is one of the key tests to understand the health conditions of an individual. Blood banks collect blood from “donors” and give it in transfusion to other patients. Intravenous injections are commonly used as an easy way of administering pharmaceutical drugs to patients around the world. Specialization courses are conducted at post graduate or even post doctoral levels of research on several aspects of blood or aspects related to the same. Specialized journals are kept for the publication of these research articles. All this happens because it is assumed that the blood is a vital liquid tissue in the human body. It is also assumed that the blood carries nourishment from intestines to the tissues. It is further supposed that respiration is possible only through the blood. Based on such assumptions other conclusions are derived. In order to suit such speculations other hypotheses are drawn up. To justify these actions several scientific publications have appeared in professional journals for circulation among the experts around the world. This process has not permitted a serious introspection into the entire matter so that academic justice is possible, at least for those who want to rectify the errors.

Based on structural and functional complexities blood vessels are identified as arteries and veins. Arteries are blood vessels which carry blood from the heart away to the tissues whereas veins return the blood towards the heart. The blood receives nutrients from the intestines and the skin. Lungs permit the gaseous exchange. The blood maintains the body temperature. And many more aspects are scientifically known. There are four types of blood groups: A, B, AB and O. Other factors are added when ever required such as Rhesus or Diego factors.

Considering the basic facts several draw backs become evident. All that has been said about blood requires a thought provoking discussion.

The kidneys receive arterial blood and urine gets separated from the same. Urine is a toxic waste which includes creatinin, urea, minerals, vitamin residues, drugs, steroids or other similar products. Urine test has served as an indicator of drug abuse among sportsman. Some times sugar is also excreted. All toxic wastes thrown out at kidneys were separated from the arterial blood and the venous blood coming out of the kidneys is devoid of these toxins. Some times the cells of the mucous membrane get “infected” causing fever or that is observed in association. Whether the fever is the cause of the infection or the infection is the cause of the fever is not clear. Many a times both these conditions are easily referred to as “virosis” by the experts to say the least.

Kidney stones of different kinds and sizes develop in response to food and living habits. Normally an adult human being produces about 1.5 liters of urine in 24 hours. The quantity and quality of urine may indicate the body conditions. Certain substances may damage the kidney tissues beyond repair. Toxic wastes may have not reached the kidneys at all. There may be structural or functional alterations kidneys or elsewhere in the body.

When the urine elimination is qualitatively and quantitatively deficient haemo-dialysis is done with the help of specialized instruments to receive the patient’s blood, filters the identifiable toxins and replaces the volume of liquid required in the body. On convenient occasions kidney transplant may be surgically performed but care must be taken to administer sufficient quantity of anti tissue rejection substances. This medicine should be consumed for the rest of the life of the patient. This indicates that even though the blood group tallied one individual rejects tissue from other organism. On the basis of immunology each individual is unique and does not accept foreign tissues of any kind.

Here the point is that all the toxic wastes were in the arterial blood. The venous blood is devoid of such toxins. The metabolic wastes reach the heart through the vena cava which in turn receives the same from the lymphatic ocean.

Salivary glands, gastric glands, liver, pancreas, intestinal glands discharge their secretions through specific ducts and therefore, are also known as exocrine glands. The pancreas also serves as endocrine gland since it produces insulin. In general the exocrine glands are associated with the alimentary canal and secrete digestive juices. All these secretions are in reality metabolic wastes separated from the arterial blood. An excellent example to explain this idea is the case of the liver and the bile.

The largest exocrine gland in the human body is the liver that produces the bile. The hepatic cells maintain excellent regeneration capacity. It is interesting to note that the hepatic cells exhibit triploid or polyploidy nuclei. The way such nuclei are produced from the diploid zygotic nuclei is still a mystery from a genetic point of view. That itself is yet another issue requiring more studies for satisfactory explanation.

The arterial blood enters the liver through hepatic artery. Cholesterol, triglycerides, bile salts, bile pigments and even ammonia are secreted. These secretions get accumulated in the vesicle and periodically released to the duodenum through the bile duct under normal circumstances. The bile duct and the pancreatic duct reach duodenum almost at the same point. Much information is available on the nature and function of the liver and the bile. It is yet another example of the efficiency of the human body and its capacity o co-ordinate different metabolic functions. Bile is secreted by the hepatic cells. The toxic wastes contained in the arterial blood are separated by the liver. The bad lipid in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides is a metabolic waste product. Bile salts and bile pigments are also found. The bile accumulated in the vesicle gets released occasionally to be drained into the duodenum to mix up with the partially digested food moving out of the stomach. The highly acidic gastric juices mixed with the food render the same acidic in reaction. As such this may damage the rest of the system. Timely incorporation of this alkaline bile with the partially digested food serves to neutralize its acidity and hence reduce damages. The fiber content of the food gets saturated with these toxic fatty acids to become a suitable substrate for the intestinal flora at the ascending colon. These two functions, namely the neutralization of acidic medium and the elimination of lipids by the dietary fiber are important for the organism. This type of usage of metabolic waste is a good example of recycling the garbage.

When the bile is not released from the liver the hepatic cells become stagnated or if it is not released from the vesicle duodenum does not get the bile. In the first case the toxic wastes are retained in the blood or when the accumulation is in the vesicle vesicular stones may be formed.

The stomach may become bag-like and sagging when there is no flexibility. This way the pyloric end of the stomach pulls down the duodenum so that the bile instead of flowing into the duodenum returns to the stomach technically known as a “reflux”. This process mixes gastric juices with the bile and the resulting mixture gets accumulated in the stomach. As a result the mucous membrane at the pyloric end close to the orifice gets degenerated exhibiting Helicobacter pylori. The situation may lead to other pathological conditions beyond consideration at this moment.

The gall stones grow by apposition and grow to attain significant size and shape. Then surgical removal of the stone or even the entire vesicle is the only solution. In this case the bile flows continuously into the duodenum. If there is any functional obstruction the bile gets refluxed into the blood stream or the body fluid. As a consequence the hepatic cells get degenerated permitting the expression of hepatitis A,B or C. In extreme cases jaundice or severe allergic intoxication is observed. Classical “idiopathic” diseases or symptoms of allergy are common complaints. On testing residual toxin is detected in the venous blood.

Similar situations may be explained with reference to other exocrine glands and their function. In every case the arterial blood carries the toxic metabolic wastes and relatively less toxic blood is found in the veins.

Human skin receives plenty of arterial blood through peripheral blood vessels. Toxic substances are separated from the arterial blood to be released through the skin. Sweat and waxy secretions with minerals are common substances in this case. This is claimed to maintain the body temperature by thermoregulation by burning the toxic wastes. Additional fat gets accumulated at hypodermal layers at strategic localities in the body. Skin care to maintain the surface clean is an important health feature. Cosmetic industry thrives on this factor. Millions of pores adorning the skin maintain direct contact with the atmosphere. This reflects the dual role of the skin as an additional kidney and an extended lung.

Local itching may extend all over the body when other ways of toxic elimination fail.

As a result dandruff, boils, hair fall, pigmentation or other chronic dermatological diseases appear one after the other or all at a time. The health of the skin is as if a mirror to the conditions within the body. When all other elimination methods fail, the skin eruptions become extensive with foul smell associated with decaying dead cells.

Again the point is that the arterial blood carries all the metabolic wastes whereas the veins return the recyclable less toxic blood. The vitamin D produced in the skin exposed to the sunlight enriches the venous blood.

In the case of lungs some warm gases combined with water vapor come out of the nostrils. Additional discussion is required here to further clarify some more points.

It is assumed that the Oxygen intake occurs through the lungs. In specialized literature no mechanism is described by which the Oxygen gets separated from the atmospheric air. The suspended soil particles, pollen, spores and bits of fungal mycelia get filtered while the air passes through the nostrils. Discounting the humidity, out of the remaining air about 21 % is supposed to be Oxygen. The Oxygen is said to be ionized to enter into the blood stream by osmosis and by binding with the haemoglobin goes to the tissues. Within the cells the mitochondria is the location of incorporation of oxygen with the nutrients to liberate ATP in the citric acid cycle to release carbon dioxide. In turn, the released carbon dioxide in ionized form incorporates into the haemoglobin to come out of the tissues and again reaches the lungs for its elimination through the nostrils. This process is also known as Kreb’s cycle.

Some of the questions at this occasion are:

What is the mechanism by which the oxygen gets separated from the air?

What happens to the electron released while ionizing takes place?

How does it take place?

An atom should be stable indivisible smallest particle and in that case oxygen as an element should function as a unit without modification of any kind.

What is the nature of ionized oxygen? Whether it remains gaseous or changes?

What is the mechanism of absorption of this gas into the mucous membrane of the lungs?

How does it flow through the lymphatic vessel subjacent to the mucous membrane?

How does the ionized oxygen pass across several layers of cells until it reaches the capillary wall?

How does it penetrate the capillary wall without damaging the same?

What happens to the ionized oxygen when it gets into the blood stream which is flowing at a specific speed?

How does it locate the erythrocytes in the blood stream?

How does it penetrate the membrane of the erythrocyte, its endoplasmic reticulum and other intracellular material?

How does it get in contact with the haemoglobin which is already loaded with ionized Carbon Dioxide?

What is the fate of the Carbon Dioxide set free?

The whole process should be reversed once the blood reaches the tissues. The ionized oxygen has to get liberated from the oxy haemoglobin. Then it has to pass through the endoplasmic reticulum and a number of organelles. After coming out of the erythrocyte it has to swim in the plasma which is already flowing. Then it has to come out of the capillary wall layers. Then the specific cell has to be located in order to enter the membrane. It has to pass through the endoplsmic reticulum to locate the mitochondria. Again it has to come in contact with the grana in order to combine with the nutrients (How do they reach that place? In what form or units? ). The ionized Carbon Dioxide produced after liberating ATP has to retrace the entire way back into the lungs. To be fair enough their proportion should be comparable. The entire process needs an exhaustive explanation in clear terms with no ambiguities.

One more problem comes to light in recent advances in Physical Sciences. This problem is of utmost importance on conceptual aspect. The Quantum Physics has identified electrons protons and neutrons as subatomic particles. Both protons and neutrons are known to have quarks as smaller components. Strings constitute still smaller units of quarks. M-theory claims still smaller particles in single dimension but vibrating. This being the case the concept of atom becomes obsolete and baseless. (Democrit a Greek of V centuries B.C. has defined the smallest indivisible particle of matter as an ATOM)

The Periodic Table is developed based on atomic theory of matter. When there are subatomic particles described and demonstrated with explosives destroying populations at several places around the planet, holding on to the atomic theory and Periodic Tables becomes incoherent. Any subject or science based on these incoherent concepts lost its charm long back.

Lavoisier (1774) working on gases identified one fraction of atmospheric air as “Oxygen” and the rest of it as “azoe”. Priestly denied the same at once but was not taken seriously by the scientific community. Thus the inventor of the word Oxygen remained the “father of Chemistry”. The bell jar experiment with a burning candle has remained a standard proof for the presence of oxygen in the air.

When a candle burns in a closed glass jar the air within gets heated up. As a result it expands. The glass jar is strong enough to maintain the volume. Some air may get dissolved in the water in the jar. Part of the burnt wax or wicks may remain in the jar or get mixed up with the water. Slowly the pressure is bound to increase within. The pressure increase reaches a point when the flame is put off. (It is assumed that the candle is put off because of the non availability of oxygen) Once again when the chamber cools down and the air within returns to its original volume, the pressure with in decreases and the water rushes into the jar. The observed phenomenon has another interpretation than the prevailing one. Such experiments contribute to prove the human errors in interpreting the observed facts. Obviously the conclusions based on such premises become incorrect.

The electrolysis of water to demonstrate the chemical composition of water as H-O-H has certain draw backs. Under normal conditions two gases should combine in an inseparable manner to constitute a stable liquid, the water. Water is a non conductor of electricity. To make it a good conductor of electricity, a dilute acid is added to the water prior to electrolysis. The resulting liquid is no more water but a dilute acid. Even if gases are collected at two terminals the source of the same need not be water. Spring water under natural conditions contains many salts in minute quantities and that gives the typical taste for that water. Such experimental proof only demonstrates the imperfection of the paradigm.

Naturally occurring sea water that represents about 97.2% of the total hydrosphere contains all the known “elements” contained in the Periodic Tables and perhaps some more. This being the case, sea salt obtained by evaporation of sea water should contain all the salts and minerals in a specific proportion. In practice the sea salt is referred to as Sodium Chloride. It may be true that the major portion of the salt is Sodium Chloride.

About 2.5% of water content of the hydrosphere gets transformed into ice bergs or glaciers occupying the mountain tops or the Polar Regions with low temperature.

Perhaps the Periodic Table as a whole plus some unknown elements should represent a chemical formula for water. Such a complex material containing liquid, solids and gaseous components should be interpreted in a better way.

Viewed from such a critical review the role of Oxygen or that of Carbon Dioxide becomes meaningless. Consequences of such considerations may be discussed elsewhere.

Lavoisier wanted to demonstrate experimentally to his friends that even after chopping off his head his eyelids could wink several times and communicate with others. The Science promoted and predominated by the European conquerors around the world carried their concepts and methodology and ruthlessly imposed on others wherever possible. All other forms of knowledge, however substantiated became “empirical” and were considered to be unscientific or even outright superstitious.

Kreb and Lipman (1953) won the Nobel Prize by describing the respiration at two levels. They presented the ten organic acids involved in the process as Citric Acid cycle.

Immediately this became the official scientific explanation of external respiration and the intracellular energy release in the form of ATP as the internal respiration. The same scientific models entered the classrooms in schools and colleges around the world with extensive charts and molecular displays of chemical bonds.

Any student or even a professional scientist becomes sick when such incoherence gets into mainstream science. This may be the main reason why the basic sciences have lost their charm. Of course the more lucrative and easier computer world has invaded all walks of life and one can become a mental slave to the machine with least creative intelligence. The information technology has grown out of bounds demanding all the available hands for its growth and steady expansion.

The fresh air gets in contact with the millions of pores in the human skin and can easily come into the body fluid with least difficulty. Even at the lungs there is lymphatic vessel subjacent to the alveolar mucous membrane that can easily be reached by the air.

All that can be said here is that the blood returning from the lungs to the heart is devoid of heat probably due to the toxic waste burning. When such waste disposal is obstructed for example, among the smokers with a dark coating on the alveolar surface, pathological conditions are bound to appear. Partial understanding becomes incomplete. Assumptions and speculations lead to erroneous conclusions.

The successful union of gametes results in a zygote. Successive division of the zygote and differentiation of organs and tissues results in an embryo sac with amniotic fluid and a normal human embryo with its own organization. The placenta serves to carry the embryo to a free suspended position within the amniotic fluid and also to secrete hormones. Out of the two arteries within one gets obliterated in due course owing to the accumulation of toxic wastes. The metabolic waste material from the developing embryo gets deposited in the umbilical chord to such an extant that the same becomes stiff at the time of child birth. While the fetus remains within the womb the erythrocytes and the platelets are produced by the spleen besides the lymph, lymphocytes and leucocytes. But once the baby is born the spleen serves as a site for disposal of worn out erythrocytes and platelets. Their production is from the bone marrow. The recovered pigments get recycled through proper channels. Even at the embryonic state the waste disposal system is well developed and the artery getting blocked up by the process is significant.

Other foci for toxic waste disposal in the body may be identified. The lachrymal gland secretions, waxy secretions in the ears and the secretions in other mucus membranes like genitals are significant. Wrinkles and folds anywhere on the skin or hypodermal fat deposition are also examples of metabolic waste retention in the body. Acidification of the affected area leading to degeneration of the cells and tissues is a common feature. The dead tissue is an ideal substrate for fungal growth identified as mycosis or candidiasis in many cases. Even finger nails and hair roots receive arterial blood and the chitin gets deposited resulting in the growth of finger nail or hair as the case may be.

Curiously enough information is available on the pathogenesis and itiology of atheroma formation in the arterial capillaries either those of the coronary arteries or the cerebral arteries. On extreme cases deep vein thrombosis also may occur. The toxic metabolic wastes present in the arterial blood get deposited along the inner walls of the blood vessels as apposition and are called atheroma. The lumen gets reduced due to obstruction and the toxic waste removal gets reduced. As a consequence the arterial blood pressure increases. Levels of lipoproteins present in the blood show higher values. The modern life style and food habits are widely known cases of such conditions in this modern industrial society. This is one of the major causes of death in the industrialized world.

When such blockings occur in the coronary arteries, open heart surgery or by pass operations are more common ways of treatment. This is time consuming and of high risk cases. Post operation treatment and life styles are sufficiently complicated either due to excessive medication or other associated problems. When a cerebral artery gets blocked or even when a capillary bursts open on the skull forming a blood clot in the brain may lead to paralysis.

Curiously enough the human brain has remained a mystery. It is said to consume about 20% of the energy requirement of the body. Not a single drop of blood enters the brain tissue. There seems to be least mention about this incoherence in the information. Brain tissue is held in a sheathing fluid, like any other delicate organs of the body. Blood supply does not reach these sensitive organs.

The pharmaceutical industries have utilized the human placenta to extract some precious hormones in recent years. It is not yet clear the role played by these hormones in the differentiation of tissues and organs in the fetus.

The endocrine glands play significant role in the human body. The speedy nature of hormone release by these glands and their spread all over the body in a fragment of time are matters of concern even for the scientific world. The unused hormone residue is removed from the body through the arterial blood. The absence of any duct for release of hormones from these glands makes all the difference. Hormonal distribution all over the body without ducts is one question. Unused hormone incorporation into the blood stream remains to be explained.

Any structural or functional alteration of these endocrine glands can cause severe health problems. The role of pancreas in the production of insulin and management of glucose content of the blood is a major issue. Millions of people, rich or poor, young and old around the world suffer from diabetes considered to be a degenerative disease with no known remedies so far. It is possible that the pancreas does not produce the hormone in sufficient quantity or quality. Also it is possible that the product is not released on time. There is another possibility that the hormone gets neutralized in the body or blocked some how some where. The toxic waste disposal system failure may be yet another cause. Some more unknown reasons may still be there for the disease, the diabetes.

Thyroid gland may cause health problems due to structural of functional alterations.

Other endocrine glands like pituitary or thymus or ovaries may exhibit structural or functional alterations with proportionate symptoms. It is known that these endocrine glands work as a whole in mutual co-ordination. The point here is that the residual hormone reaches the blood stream just prior to its elimination from the body.

Soon after child birth several functional changes occur in the metabolism. The digestive system becomes functional and so is the respiratory system. Bone marrow starts producing the erythrocytes and the platelets. Their incorporation into the blood stream occurs through the vena cava.

In the case of heart patients in any emergency some pill is placed below the tongue and significantly less than that may be taken for the digestion of the pill and then absorption of the digested medicine into the blood stream prior to its conduction to the brain and other parts of the body to arrange the response of the cardiac muscles.

In the case of prisoners executed with lethal injections the hypodermic syringes just penetrate the skin to release the required quantity of poison into the subcutaneous layers and the death overcomes in less than ten seconds. The blood stream does not intervene in the distribution of the injected poison.

In the case of intramuscular injections of vitamins and other medicines these ingredients may reach the blood stream much later through the vena cava since there is no possibility of entry directly into the blood stream.

In all these cases it has to be stressed that the blood stream has not served to transport nutrients or medicines around the organs and tissues in human beings. These substances reach the arterial blood just prior to their elimination from the body through regular systems meant for the same. The lymph has served to receive these substances from out side, from the digestive system or from the endocrine glands and to distribute the ingredients to tissues and cells all over the body. After necessary use the metabolic waste products are recovered and finally discharged in to the vena cava.

The foregoing discussion raises some fundamental issues. Harvey (1628) described the blood circulation. The medical team at that time accepted that proposal and made it a generalized statement all over the world. This became the official professional stand and scientific opinion on this subject. The world around under the European colonial supremacy had to accept this as a norm without protest. There was no second opinion at any time and in due course of time this hypothesis became a law. This is typically what happens in the case of blind belief.

After all on care full observation it is evident that there is neither such continuity in the blood flow nor there are any closed circuits through which the blood flows. The arterial blood flows in one direction from the heart to different organs and tissues for the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. The venous blood recovers the recyclable portion of the plasma, erythrocytes, platelets and other components to continue the process. Each individual is unique but the pattern may be same in all. Several partial actions reactions and interactions take place prior to the expression. The expression may be part of the whole process. Fragmentation is a major draw back in the prevailing paradigm. Every fragment is considered for description in the hope of obtaining a detailed knowledge but forget the comprehensive process as a whole.

About 71% of the human body is fluid. A small portion of this is the blood. When blood alone is considered the fragmentation picture becomes evident. The arterial blood has efficiently served the body to eliminate the metabolic waste out of the body tissues. But at the same time one has to make sure that the arterial blood is not nourishing the cells and tissues around the body. There is no need to complicate the issue by incorporating the arterial blood, Oxygen from the lungs and nutrients into one package. This changes the paradigm as a whole. The venous blood is devoid of toxins or at least there is recyclable part of the blood generally devoid of toxic wastes. The venous blood receives the metabolic waste products from the lymph at the vena cava. The story of blood circulation has to be rewritten on these lines changing the entire process.

Any unbiased observer can follow the pattern in a dynamic process. The serological blood test is yet another topic for critical discussion.

Considering the biodiversity no two persons can have immunologically identical blood. Perhaps Siamese twins are exceptions to this rule. Blood groups of mother and child are different. This indicates that at any time during pregnancy there was no communication of blood between the two bodies. The developing fetus does not eat but develops the complete digestive tract with all accessory organs related with the same. But the same is not functional until child birth. The lungs and nostrils develop in the fetus but do not enter into action until child birth. Functionally active heart is observable or becomes evident soon after the first three weeks of embryo development. Throughout the embryo development the nourishment is available to each and every cell from the surrounding amniotic fluid rich in nutrients.

A normal human being may survive for about six minutes without breathing. A sample of blood obtained from a vein is held in a test tube or a vial for its analysis or even for the blood bank. The duration may vary from minutes to days or even months before it is handled for specific purposes. There is neither gaseous exchange nor nourishment during this period. Some times it is held under refrigeration, which is not its natural condition. Probably it is a dead tissue for all practical purposes.

The simplest test is to determine the blood group among the four A, B, AB and O.

It is a common knowledge that each individual is unique in the world. Any donation of blood or transfusion, even if the group has tallied, is naturally associated with tissue rejection by the recipient. In order to suppress this rejection special chemicals will have to be injected into the recipient body. No wonder that a significant majority (about 95%) has developed hepatitis B or C as a consequence of this technology. As a result these recipients can never donate their blood.

Tissue rejection is a major problem in the transplant surgery process. This is a real challenge for the science as well. This has made it compulsory to administer ante rejection medicines along with the transplant. The side effects are quite significant.

If blood neither nourishes the tissues and cells in the body with nutrients nor Oxygen as assumed in the modern science, it becomes evident that this paradigm has to be abandoned immediately. This is all the more urgent when the blood serves only as an efficient metabolic waste disposal system. A new paradigm is necessary to explain what happens in the living body, how and why.

At the outset the blood bank, blood “donation”, blood transfusion, blood tests, blood groups, intravenous injections and all such procedures become meaningless and obsolete.

Is it possible for the scientific community to accept such significant proposition?

Obviously a coherent logical paradigm has to be proposed and details worked out. If only some careful attention is given to the whole process with least fragmentation, clear cut pictures start appearing. Improvement of Science in general and basic sciences in particular is possible only through such bold far-reaching break through. New professional formation in this objective will have to be planned and executed.

An ontogenetic approach should provide us with a logical sequence of events right from the beginning. Care should be taken to maintain the process as dynamic as possible since it involves life energy. Life energy needs a definition first. All the information of living organisms is based on dead material and even the life energy is not yet defined. The liquid medium where the self sustainable energy expresses itself should be better understood. This is the assembly line for the differentiation of the cells, tissues and organs. The entire organism gets ready structurally within this medium before setting free functionally, at least partially at child birth.

Life has to be defined as a new type of energy different from those described in the physical sciences such as electromagnetic, nuclear or gravity. Life is a potential indestructible, subtle and self moving energy. This energy is present in and expresses through each and every organism whether it is unicellular or multi-cellular. The internal structural complexity associated with dynamic activities is unique for these organisms. Metabolic functions, vibrations, movements of liquids, gases or even solids express automatically with ample diversity. Each organism is different from another one either in form, size, shape or expressions. This is the basic tenet for biodiversity. The life energy can neither be measured quantitatively nor qualitatively. Its dynamic expression may be felt as a pattern of vibrations but the existing instruments are not capable of measuring the same. The life energy is present in the whole organism in such a diffuse form that to locate its position in organs, tissues or cells becomes impossible. Sub-cellular localization should not be resorted to since this violates the fundamental decision not to fragment the whole.

The primordial expression of life energy is in the form of vibration occurring in the liquid medium. The zygote is the initial cell from which the entire organism evolves. At this stage structurally there is a liquid medium known as the cytoplasm within which a nucleus may be observed. The contents of these two components proceed from the biological parents. The quality and quantity of the same is therefore entirely limited to the conditions of the parents prior to the conception. The metabolism in this single cell initiates the process and determines the future as a whole.

This new paradigm not only considers the entire organism as a whole without fragmentation but also takes into account the time-space as a continuum for the sustainability of life. The metabolic activity creates new components both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As a consequence the mass and volume get increased. Depending on the nutrients readily available in the mucus membrane of the uterus, the quality and quantity of metabolic products are added to the zygote. A part of this supply of raw material is used up to provide energy for the process whereas another portion is incorporated to the mass. Perhaps a small quantity of residue, either unused raw material or metabolic product not required at that moment, is produced. Such metabolic wastes must be removed constantly from the set up to maintain a clean and tidy process in order to facilitate the life to prosper and flourish.

The zygote under normal circumstances migrates to a specific location in the uterus where it gets attached itself to the mucus membrane. Rarely however, zygotes reach abnormal locations. Soon the nucleus of the zygote expresses the process of mitosis as the manifestation of life force. Successive division of the cytoplasm results in two cells a basal cell and an apical cell. The basal cell gets attached to the substrate firmly to project the apical cell out into the cavity of the uterus. Soon lateral expansion and cell divisions in the basal cell permit the formation of the embryo sac which envelops the apical cell. The liquid medium fills up the sac and is the amniotic fluid. The apical cell divides to constitute the pro embryo at the tip of a filamentous stalk. The filamentous stalk after successive divisions becomes the umbilical chord. The pro embryo develops at all times during the formative stages. The hormones secreted by the umbilical chord play important role in the differentiation of organs and tissues. Within this chord three blood vessels get differentiated of which two arteries and one vein. The embryo sac is filled with amniotic fluid which is the nourishing medium and an assembly line for the developing embryo. The embryo is completely submerged in the fluid maintained at a constant temperature of 37 degrees centigrade.

Embryo development as such may be understood as a process. The energy flow, especially the life energy is neither visible nor measurable with known instruments. The process of differentiation may be observed in a specific pattern. The thoracic cavity with included organs gets differentiated within the neural tube during the first three weeks. The viscera and the abdominal region get differentiated during the next three weeks. A transverse muscular separation wall occurs between these two regions and later on gets identified as the diaphragm. In another three weeks time the head region becomes differentiated at the other extreme of the thoracic region. The navel at the tip represents the initial point of the organism since it is here that the umbilical chord is connected to it. Obviously the other end of the embryo is the fontanel at the other extreme of the neural tube. The length of the human body should have been measured from the initial navel point to the fontanel. Upper and lower appendages along with other organs get differentiated in the body at corresponding locations.

The whole process takes place with the embryo well submerged in the amniotic fluid which nourishes the cells, tissues and organs at all times. There is no more need for additional supply of nutrients. The pulmonary and digestive systems get differentiated but they start functioning only after child birth. It is interesting to note that one of the arteries in the umbilical chord gets obliterated by deposition of metabolic wastes from the developing embryo. Even the umbilical chord gets impregnated with toxic residues at the time of the completion of the gestation period. Soon after child birth the umbilical chord gets detached from the uterus along with the embryo sac which is made use of by the pharmaceutical industry as raw material for hormones.

The female breast is made up of special tissue where glands are arranged in a particular fashion. The secretion comes out through special openings at the nipple. Soon after the woman gets pregnant these glands get stimulated and soon after child birth these glands secrete milk to nourish the new born baby. The chemical constitution of this milk is ideally suited to the baby in such a way that the composition changes with each feeding. The concentration of substances increases in the milk proportionate to the aging of the infant. Breast milk is considered as a complete food for the baby.

On reflection it is easy to visualize the importance of lymphatic system in the human body. Interestingly much of the body liquid is lymph. This liquid is in constant contact with every cell of the body including those of the brain, the bone marrow, the lungs, the liver, the endocrine glands, the gonads and practically all over the body. This liquid medium served for growth of the embryo, maintaining contact with each cell of the same. The direct communication with all the living cells permits the nourishment whenever needed on the one hand and to get rid of the metabolic waste produced during the process. In the case of endocrine glands the hormones get into the lymph and immediately they are available at every cell of the body through the lymph. The drainage of the lymph into the vena cava explains the toxic waste elimination from the body collected from every living cell. The venous blood at this stage gets mixed up with the wastes before entering the heart. From the heart the arterial blood loaded with toxic wastes proceeds to the organs of elimination. Besides nostrils the body is furnished with several inlets and outlets for the atmospheric air including several millions of pores all over the skin. Subtle vibrations from the surroundings, beyond the capacity of sense organs, can be felt by the lymph.

The tropical region of the world has 76% of the world population. Major health problems are also reported from the tropics. Child mortality, mal nutrition, dehydration, lack of breast milk or absence of clean drinking water may be cited as few examples of real issues to solve. The modern science sees no hope for these peoples since all these problems have no known solutions at their offices or educational centers. When the new paradigm is applied correctly all these problems may be solved around the world in less than a year.

Oral re hydration therapies are more efficient that the intravenous drips. In the tropics the locally available tender coconut (with abundant liquid nuclear endosperm) is an ideal isotonic solution for oral administration. There is no need for professional assistance, no need for sophisticated instrumentation, the cost is so cheap and any body can afford this solution. Once administered orally the assimilation occurs within minutes into the lymph at the circum esophageal vessel and the body fluid reaches its full capacity. Within half an hour normal urine elimination occurs by separation of toxins from the system. At the same time, the body cells get nourished from the liquid and the urinary system of the patient improves its functions.

Blood transfusion is not required at any moment. The risk of hepatitis may be avoided.

If proper food and life style habits are maintained, with discipline and full freedom efficiency and creativity permit new horizons, may be reached. All other invasive treatments may be avoided. Intravenous injections also may be abandoned with oral therapy. Oral administration of medicines in the form of liquids may reduce the high cost of pharmaceutical drugs that are injected.

Just because the modern science has not discovered the importance of lymph nodes and lymph glands they cut off such organs and remove them even without knowing their importance for the body. It is possible that some part of the body has serious problems and the associated lymph node is swollen. In that case removal of the node without attending the affected organ or tissues may lead to other complications.

Logical reasoning is the only way by which free thinking becomes creative. New and novel ideas come to light under such circumstances. When these ideas or thoughts flourish in an intellectual with personal discipline the results become proportionately valuable. These lines of thought should yield very useful information to understand the nature as a process. When these conclusions are carried over to soft technologies

The human kind should benefit materially out of it.

This type of Science leading to adequate soft technology is one of the key issues for real progress of the humanity. The entire process is the direct result of efficient creativity or creative efficiency. Both these qualities are direct consequences of individual discipline at all levels combined with individual freedom of thought, words and action.

An education system that permits this kind of free thinking should be implemented at all levels from birth to death. All necessary facilities and opportunities should be given for such projects. Scientist, young and old should get trained in such methods. This is the only way to attain real knowledge with least bias.